Articles & Chapters

(I haven’t updated this page since 2015, but will try to do so soon!)

Encyclopedia of Christian EducationThe Encyclopedia of Christian Education (2015)

With an editorial advisory board of more than 30 distinguished scholars and five consulting editors, The Encyclopedia of Christian Education contains more than 1,200 entries by 400 contributors from 75 countries. I have 9 articles in here, on:

“Teaching in Hebrews”
“Protestant Catechisms”
“Reformed Scholasticism”
“Church History”
“Puritan Education”
“Oak Hill Theological College, London”
“Princeton Theological Seminary”
“Westminster Theological Seminary”
“Tyndale House, Cambridge”

George Whitefield — The Anglican Evangelist is an article from the Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 18/2 (Summer 2014), where I examine the Anglican credentials of the famous 18th century Evangelist, George Whitefield, his love for the Thirty-nine Articles, the Book of Common Prayer, and Homilies.

“The Synod of Dort and Definite Atonement” in From Heaven He Came and Sought Her: Definite Atonement in Biblical, Historical, Theological & Pastoral Perspective (published by Crossway, 2013). My contribution to this fantastic volume is a contextual and historical study of the classic statement of Calvinist doctrine on the atonement in the Canons of the Synod of Dort (1618-1619), as well as the interpretation of significant verses in the debate from the biblical commentary produced by the Synod.

“The Book of Common Prayer” and “The Book of Common Prayer Timeline” in Modern Reformation 22.4 (July-August 2013)

“1662 and All That” in Truth at Any Cost: Papers read at the 2012 Westminster Conference (2013). My chapter in this book is a spirited defence of Anglicanism in the context of the anniversary of the 1662 Great Ejection of the Puritans. It created a bit of a stir in nonconformist circles, as can be seen in my defence of the original talk against various Baptist and Presbyterian comments here.

“The Anglican Doctrine of Baptism” in Foundations 63 (2012). This article examines the theology of baptism found in the history and foundational documents of the Church of England. With application throughout for confessional Anglicans (and others!) today, it also concludes with a brief look at contemporary controversies surrounding the covenantal nature of baptism, and the current downplaying of baptism within Anglican Evangelicalism.

“Grace Tasted Death for All: Thomas Aquinas on Hebrews 2:9.”   A look at Aquinas’ commentary on a tricky verse in Hebrews, as an example of medieval exegesis, and its theological context (especially the implications for the debate about the sufficiency and efficacy of the atonement). Published in Tyndale Bulletin 63.2 (2012): 217-236.

“The Lessons of History: A Review Article” in Churchman 125.3 (2011). A lengthy review article looking at seven recent books on church history to see how solid and how useful they might be for the church. The first four are overviews of the last two thousand years; the last three cover just the last century or so.

The Puritans as Missionaries
This article appeared in Modern Reformation 20.2 (March-April 2011), an international magazine based in America. “Missionary” is not the first word that comes to mind when one thinks of the Puritans. Keen disciples, passionate pastors, devotional writers, powerful preachers, precise theologians – yes. Radical revolutionaries and reformers even. But not missionaries. A recent companion to Puritanism has no chapter on their missionary endeavours and does not even have an entry in the index for “evangelism”. So I tried to show in this article that all their efforts in theology, ministry, and even politics, were focused on bringing glory to God through the salvation of sinners. I look at how the Puritans sought to reach the lost for Christ in New England, in the dark corners of Old England (and Wales), and within the established churches. The article also became 6 blog posts: The Puritans as Missionaries, Puritan Politics and the Liberating Gospel, Puritan Theology and the Gracious Gospel, Reaching the Indians in New England, Reaching the Indians in Old England and Wales, and Reaching the Indians in our Churches.

The Unerring Word of God
A short article in The Gospel Magazine for September-October 2010, pages 152-154 about the inerrancy of the Bible.  I show from the writings of Augustus Toplady, George Whitefield, James Hervey, and John Newton that Anglican Evangelicals of the 18th century held that the Bible was both infallible and unerring.  I trace the possible sources of this in the Book of Common Prayer and Thirty-nine Articles, as well as in the Bible itself (Proverbs 30:5). This is basically an expanded version of page 56 of my book The True Profession of the Gospel.

A Deceptive Clarity? Particular Redemption in the Westminster Standards
Published in Reformed Theological Review 69.3 (December 2010) pages 180-196. This article looks at how the various positions taken by Reformed theologians in the Westminster Assembly debate over ”particular redemption” are reflected in the text of the Westminster Confession and Catechisms themselves. My conclusion is that the Standards are more subtle and nuanced than many believe and do not rule out some very carefully defined forms of Reformed “hypothetical universalism.”  I should point out, however, that this does not mean I hold to that position myself.

Lee Gatiss – RTR Articles on Particular Redemption at Westminster (this pdf contains both my articles on the Westminster Assembly and Standards – see above and below).

Shades of Opinion within a Generic Calvinism: The Particular Redemption Debate at the Westminster Assembly
Published in Reformed Theological Review 69.2 (August 2010) pages 101-118. This article looks at the debate over limited / definite/ efficiacious / personal atonement or “particular redemption” at the Westminster Assembly in the mid-17th century. There was a surprising variety of Reformed opinions expressed on the subject, which are expounded, explained, and analysed in their context here.

The Inexhaustible Fountain of All Goodness: Union with Christ in Calvin’s Commentary and Sermons on Ephesians
Union with Christ is the defining theme of John Calvin’s teaching on the way we receive the grace of Christ in salvation, to which he attached “the highest degree of importance.” This article looks at how this doctrine is taught in Calvin’s commentary and sermons on the book of Ephesians, in which being united to Christ is a unifying principle, and how it serves to highlight many of Calvin’s doctrinal and pastoral concerns. Published in Themelios 34.2 (July 2009).

Justified Hesitation? J.D.G. Dunn & the Protestant Doctrine of Justification
This article explores the teaching of Professor J.D.G. Dunn on the subject of justification. The basic thesis is that we should have no hesitation at all in sticking to the traditional Protestant doctrine of justification, because Professor Dunn’s “New Perspective” critique of it is not sufficiently solid. First published in Churchman 115/1 (2001).

The Manifesto of the Reformation: Luther vs. Erasmus on Free Will
This article examines “one of the most famous exchanges in western intellectual history”, the clash between Martin Luther and Desiderius Erasmus over the issue of free will.  The debate between these two titans reveals not only the reasons behind humanism’s repudiation of the Reformation, but also exposes the heartbeat of the Reformation itself, since Luther’s contribution is the nearest to a systematic statement of his principles that he ever made. But did he do so in a godly way…? Published in Churchman 123/3 (2009).

A Christian Response to Terrorism in London
Reflections on the impact of the 7/7 terrorist attacks on London in July 2005, and thoughts on how to respond to such atrocities in a Christian way. First published in The Briefing in September 2005.

Biblical Authority in Recent Evangelical Books
An examination of recent books by John Stott, Alister McGrath, and J.I. Packer on the subject of the Bible and its authority. First published in Churchman 120/4 (2006).

Abortion and our Attitude to the Foetus
Abortion remains an emotive issue in theology and politics. This article makes the case for seeing our assessment of the foetus as determinative on the issue. It examines various “pro-choice” (pro-abortion) arguments which see the foetus as human, and concludes that Christians must stress not only the humanity of the foetus but also the sacredness of all human life in order to be properly heard in the debate. From Churchman 119/3 (2005) and also on The Theologian.

The Autobiography of a “Meer Christian”: Richard Baxter’s Account of the Restoration
This paper examines the autobiography of puritan theologian Richard Baxter (the Reliquiae Baxterianae of 1696) and assesses its value as a historical source for the religious settlement of 1660-1662. Baxter is a complicated source whose account requires sensitive handling, but is of immense use and interest – the premier starting point for any serious engagement with this crucial episode in English Church history. First published in Churchman 122/2 (2008).

The Reformed Consensus on Justification
This article outlines the doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone as taught by Reformed theologians from the 16th to 21st Centuries. It includes data from major Reformed thinkers John Calvin, Francis Turretin, Charles Hodge, Louis Berkof, and Robert Reymond.

Love is the Greatest thing (1 Corinthians 13)
An exegetical examination of this famous chapter, often read at weddings and funerals.

The Difficult Issue of Non-Marital Sex
This article examines the biblical arguments against non-marital sexual relations, putting them alongside other theological, pragmatic, and social-psychological arguments. An earlier version of this article also appeared on The Briefing website in February 2002.

Evangelistic Sermons in the Book of Acts
An exegetical examination and comparison of the evangelistic sermons of the Apostles Peter and Paul, and what we can learn from them.

The Warning Passages in the Book of Hebrews
A discussion of the rhetorical function and purpose of the warning passages in the book of Hebrews, often used in theological debates between Calvinists and Arminians on the subject of the perseverence of the saints. Does Hebrews teach that an elect Christian can fall away?

The Place of the Plagues Narrative in the Book of Exodus
A biblical-theological assessment of the function and purpose of the plagues narrative (Exodus 7-14) in the book of Exodus.

September 11th 2001 and False Gospels
Some thoughts on the impact of “9/11″ and how it exposed the false gospels on offer by the secular world.

Is Christianity a Revealed Religion?
Can Christianity really claim to have been revealed by God? What is involved in making such a philosophical argument, and can it be believed?

Building Bigger Barns: A short Observation on Life in the City
A short piece I wrote for a blog on the parable in Luke 12 about the rich fool, and what it says about the City I work in…